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Autophagy is essential for maintaining the growth of a human (mini-)organ: Evidence from scalp hair follicle organ culture.

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Autophagy is essential for maintaining the growth of a human (mini-)organ: Evidence from scalp hair follicle organ culture.

Post  CausticSymmetry on Tue Apr 03, 2018 1:17 pm

PLoS Biol. 2018 Mar 28;16(3):e2002864. doi: 10.1371/journal.pbio.2002864. [Epub ahead of print]
Autophagy is essential for maintaining the growth of a human (mini-)organ: Evidence from scalp hair follicle organ culture.
Parodi C1, Hardman JA2, Allavena G1, Marotta R1, Catelani T1, Bertolini M3,4, Paus R2,3, Grimaldi B1.

Autophagy plays a crucial role in health and disease, regulating central cellular processes such as adaptive stress responses, differentiation, tissue development, and homeostasis. However, the role of autophagy in human physiology is poorly understood, highlighting a need for a model human organ system to assess the efficacy and safety of strategies to therapeutically modulate autophagy. As a complete, cyclically remodelling (mini-)organ, the organ culture of human scalp hair follicles (HFs), which, after massive growth (anagen), spontaneously enter into an apoptosis-driven organ involution (catagen) process, may provide such a model. Here, we reveal that in anagen, hair matrix keratinocytes (MKs) of organ-cultured HFs exhibit an active autophagic flux, as documented by evaluation of endogenous lipidated Light Chain 3B (LC3B) and sequestosome 1 (SQSTM1/p62) proteins and the ultrastructural visualization of autophagosomes at all stages of the autophagy. This autophagic flux is altered during catagen, and genetic inhibition of autophagy promotes catagen development. Conversely, an anti-hair loss product markedly enhances intrafollicular autophagy, leading to anagen prolongation. Collectively, our data reveal a novel role of autophagy in human hair growth. Moreover, we show that organ-cultured scalp HFs are an excellent preclinical research model for exploring the role of autophagy in human tissue physiology and for evaluating the efficacy and tissue toxicity of candidate autophagy-modulatory agents in a living human (mini-)organ.

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