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Wheat Is A Cause of Many Diseases, I: Leaky Gut

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Wheat Is A Cause of Many Diseases, I: Leaky Gut

Post  LittleFighter on Wed Oct 27, 2010 4:16 am

Leave this crap for once and for all!

Should we fear Hashimoto's if we're taking iodine WHILE having enough nutrients like selenium, magnesium & vitamin d AND being WHEAT (and mostly grain-) free? that question pops to my mind. The evidence against wheat is overwhelming, at least to me!

http://perfecthealthdiet.com/?p=873


I realized last week that I often call wheat the most toxic food, but I haven’t really explained why on the blog. The book has a detailed explanation, which focuses on toxicity effects and on autoimmune processes attacking the gut and thyroid. Here I would like to add to the book’s argument by showing how wheat causes other autoimmune diseases.

There are about 50 diseases which are thought to have an autoimmune basis. Autoimmune diseases are caused by three processes:

1. Leaky gut and inflammation. A leaky gut lets bacteria and food toxins enter the body. In the body, these precipitate an immune response which creates inflammation and a chance for antibodies to form.
2. “Molecular mimicry.” A bacterial protein or food toxin resembles a human protein sufficiently closely that an antibody to the foreign protein may also recognize human proteins, potentially precipitating attacks on self tissue.
3. Adjuvant activity. Vaccines are produced by bonding an antigen (the target of the hoped-for antibody) to an adjuvant (a molecule that greatly increases the likelihood antibodies will be made – a sort of catalyst). If a “molecular mimic” can bind to an adjuvant, then autoimmune disease becomes much more likely.

Wheat causes many autoimmune diseases because it promotes all three aspects. I’ll look at each aspect in a separate post this week.
Leaky Gut

In a recent comment – it’s nice to have smart readers! – Rich brought up the links between wheat and leaky gut.

Leaky gut is the first step toward autoimmune disease. As a recent review states:

Susceptibility to at least 50 diseases, including celiac disease (CD) and type 1 diabetes (T1D), has been associated with specific HLA class I or class II alleles. A common denominator of these diseases is the presence of several preexisting conditions that lead to an autoimmune process…. In all cases, increased permeability precedes disease and causes an abnormality in antigen delivery that triggers immune events, eventually leading to a multiorgan process and autoimmunity. [1]

Gluten is a complex of proteins found in wheat, rye, oats, barley, and other grains. One part of gluten is a type of protein called prolamins, which are chiefly responsible for gut damage:

It is the gliadin fraction of wheat gluten and similar alcohol-soluble proteins in other grains (collectively known as prolamins) that are associated with the development of intestinal damage. A common feature of the prolamins of wheat, rye, and barley is a high content of glutamine (>30%) and proline (>15%), whereas the nontoxic prolamins of rice and corn have lower glutamine and proline content. [1]

I’m quoting this because it speaks to the differences among grains. Rice and corn do not contain gluten. Corn contains other dangerous toxins, but is not a primary cause of autoimmune disease. Rice is the only grain we consider safe to eat.
From Cholera to the Cause of Leaky Gut

The mechanisms by which wheat causes leaky gut have been intensively studied by Dr. Alessio Fasano’s group. In 1995 Dr. Fasano and colleagues discovered that a toxin released by Vibrio cholerae, the bacterium that causes cholera http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cholera, causes tight junctions to open for a time. [2] This makes the small intestine leaky.

Dr. Fasano and colleagues suspected that the bacterial protein’s action must mimic some natural human protein which controls intestinal permeability. In 2000, they discovered this human protein and named it “zonulin.” [3]
Wheat and Crohn’s Disease

They subsequently showed that gliadin stimulates zonulin release. Gliadin binds to a receptor called CXCR3, and activation of this receptor triggers zonulin release and increased intestinal permeability.

Interestingly, zonulin release was much higher and longer-lasting in Crohn’s disease patients than in healthy patients. [1] Restriction of gluten restores intestinal integrity in Crohn’s disease patients.

So Crohn’s disease patients should absolutely not eat wheat!
Leaky Gut and Type I Diabetes

A leaky small intestine is a feature of many autoimmune diseases, but Crohn’s disease and Type I diabetes are notable for highly permeable small intestines. Patients with both diseases have high serum levels of zonulin. [1]

In a rat model of Type I diabetes, the BioBreeding diabetes prone or “BBDP” line of rats often develops a leaky gut at age 50 to 75 days when eating a (toxic) diet of rat chow. Zonulin levels increase up to 35-fold at this time, but were reduced if the rats were fed a gluten-free diet. Rats with the highest zonulin levels developed Type I diabetes develops 15 to 25 days later. If a compound that blocks the action of zonulin is given to the rats, Type I diabetes incidence is reduced 70%. [1, 4]

This shows how crucial a leaky gut is to onset of autoimmune diseases like Type I diabetes, and also how quickly diseases can develop once the gut is compromised. The longer the gut is leaky, the greater the likelihood that some autoimmune disease will develop.

In humans, the relationships between these diseases are much the same as in rats. Crohn’s disease and Type I diabetes are co-morbid: the prevalence of Crohn’s among Type I diabetics is 6- to 9-fold higher than in the general population. Meanwhile, newborn children exposed to wheat at 3 months of age or earlier, when the gut is immature, are 4- to 5-fold more likely to develop Type I diabetes. [4]
Conclusion

Leaky gut is a prerequisite for development of autoimmune disease. Wheat seems to create a transient, mild leaky gut in nearly everyone, but in Crohn’s disease the gut becomes chronically and severely leaky in response to wheat consumption.

In rats, this leaky gut can lead to development of autoimmune diseases like Type I diabetes in as little as a few weeks.

If you eat wheat, it’s probably only a matter of time before you develop some disease or other. All of the autoimmune diseases, from rheumatoid arthritis to Hashimoto’s to lupus, are made more likely by wheat consumption. Why not switch to rice or other “safe starches” and save yourself some trouble?
References

[1] Visser J et al. Tight junctions, intestinal permeability, and autoimmunity: celiac disease and type 1 diabetes paradigms. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2009 May;1165:195-205. http://pmid.us/19538307.

[2] Fasano A et al. Zonula occludens toxin modulates tight junctions through protein kinase C-dependent actin reorganization, in vitro. J Clin Invest. 1995 Aug;96(2):710-20. http://pmid.us/7635964.

[3] Wang W et al. Human zonulin, a potential modulator of intestinal tight junctions. J Cell Sci. 2000 Dec;113 Pt 24:4435-40. http://pmid.us/11082037.

[4] Watts T et al. Role of the intestinal tight junction modulator zonulin in the pathogenesis of type I diabetes in BB diabetic-prone rats. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Feb 22;102(Cool:2916-21. http://pmid.us/15710870.

Tagged as: Autoimmune, Bowel Disease, Diabetes, Wheat & grains • Comments (0)

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Re: Wheat Is A Cause of Many Diseases, I: Leaky Gut

Post  Nuada on Wed Oct 27, 2010 7:33 am

so I should stop eating oat meal @ breakfast ? Then what am I going to eat Crying or Very sad

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Re: Wheat Is A Cause of Many Diseases, I: Leaky Gut

Post  tooyoung on Wed Oct 27, 2010 7:40 am

Nuada - I like having eggs for breakfast with a veggie like a carrot or something, some people said they have broccoli.

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Re: Wheat Is A Cause of Many Diseases, I: Leaky Gut

Post  LittleFighter on Wed Oct 27, 2010 7:54 am

Nuada wrote:so I should stop eating oat meal @ breakfast ? Then what am I going to eat Crying or Very sad

I drink nut milk, plus coconut oil, 2 raw egg yolks and sometimes some more stuff.

You can eat whole rice cakes for example... really there's stuff to eat besides wheat/oats. We just forget about all the possibilities because we-re used to the same stuff for breakfast.

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Re: Wheat Is A Cause of Many Diseases, I: Leaky Gut

Post  LittleFighter on Wed Oct 27, 2010 7:56 am

tooyoung wrote:Nuada - I like having eggs for breakfast with a veggie like a carrot or something, some people said they have broccoli.

Berries plus yogurt...
Rice Cakes (whole)
Eggs
Meat
Smoothie (low sugar fruits)
Kefir
Coconut oil
Buckwheat
...

I don-t have much imagination, but a few paleo books do the trick of giving you lots of options

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Re: Wheat Is A Cause of Many Diseases, I: Leaky Gut

Post  dannyroddy on Wed Oct 27, 2010 3:09 pm

You mean change my diet Little Fighter!? Heretic!

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Re: Wheat Is A Cause of Many Diseases, I: Leaky Gut

Post  DM5 on Wed Oct 27, 2010 3:30 pm

Littlefighter-

Do you find evidence of oats being bad. They are actually touted as being helpful for leaky gut. For some may cause allergy, but figuring you clean up this environment, might be a non-issue. Not to mention the magnesium and other mineral content in oats. Also have seen a couple of articles on the web talking about their beneficial impact on hair and health in general. Wouldn't they be up there with rice??

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Re: Wheat Is A Cause of Many Diseases, I: Leaky Gut

Post  dannyroddy on Wed Oct 27, 2010 6:01 pm

DM5 wrote:Littlefighter-

Do you find evidence of oats being bad. They are actually touted as being helpful for leaky gut. For some may cause allergy, but figuring you clean up this environment, might be a non-issue. Not to mention the magnesium and other mineral content in oats. Also have seen a couple of articles on the web talking about their beneficial impact on hair and health in general. Wouldn't they be up there with rice??

Oats contain a similar protein to gluten called proline. This protein remains intact despite the best efforts of our digestive systems attempt to break it down. The result is inflammation, autoimmunity, and hair loss.

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Re: Wheat Is A Cause of Many Diseases, I: Leaky Gut

Post  Balthier on Wed Oct 27, 2010 6:38 pm

correct, but if your gonna eat oats occasionally anyway(I read they are lower than wheat also) you should ferment them which does some things like sourdough and increases mineral absorption. Oats are naturally higher in zinc. Did you know the Quaker Oats box used to include soaking the oats overnight in the directions?
http://onebeggarsrecipes.wordpress.com/2008/01/07/why-soak-oats/
and more interesting reading about fermenting grains/oats
http://www.schooloflife.org/oats/index.htm

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Re: Wheat Is A Cause of Many Diseases, I: Leaky Gut

Post  tooyoung on Wed Oct 27, 2010 10:37 pm

I don-t have much imagination, but a few paleo books do the trick of giving you lots of options

Do you have any good paleo books to recommend?

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Re: Wheat Is A Cause of Many Diseases, I: Leaky Gut

Post  Nocturnalhorse on Wed Oct 27, 2010 11:43 pm

Robb Wolf : The Paleo Solution.
Mark Sisson : Primal Blueprint.
Dr Weston Price : Nutrition and physical degeneration.
Dr Jonny bowden : Healthiest meals on earth, 150 healthiest foods on earth.

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Re: Wheat Is A Cause of Many Diseases, I: Leaky Gut

Post  LittleFighter on Thu Oct 28, 2010 12:56 am

http://perfecthealthdiet.com

Very Happy New and the best

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Re: Wheat Is A Cause of Many Diseases, I: Leaky Gut

Post  LittleFighter on Thu Oct 28, 2010 1:57 am

dannyroddy wrote:
DM5 wrote:Littlefighter-

Do you find evidence of oats being bad. They are actually touted as being helpful for leaky gut. For some may cause allergy, but figuring you clean up this environment, might be a non-issue. Not to mention the magnesium and other mineral content in oats. Also have seen a couple of articles on the web talking about their beneficial impact on hair and health in general. Wouldn't they be up there with rice??

Oats contain a similar protein to gluten called proline. This protein remains intact despite the best efforts of our digestive systems attempt to break it down. The result is inflammation, autoimmunity, and hair loss.

DM5, I second Danny. There's Avenin in Oats (gluten-like). Also there's the issue of cross contamination with wheat, GMOs, etc (I know this applies to other grains).

However, FERMENTED oats that's another story! that's good for your gut and health. Many people might be able to tolerate regular oats... but I'm not taking chances, specially if one is leaky gutted. Maybe I'll try someday to ferment oats with some proven probiotic strain like L.P. 299V...

Oats like other grains contain nutrient inhibitors, phytic acid (binds magnesium and other minerals), toxins, fiber, etc. I only hear people touting its benefits to reduce cholesterol... do we really need to use it for that? I don't think so, the source of the problem is different... but oh well... better oats than statins.

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Re: Wheat Is A Cause of Many Diseases, I: Leaky Gut

Post  DM5 on Thu Oct 28, 2010 4:36 am

Thanks Danny and LIttlefighter- and good to know. The funny thing is that I'm pretty sure I notice inflammation after eating brown rice as well. I use brown rice raps for sandwiches and was eating a brown rice cereal, but began to notice the same nflammation. What brands do you buy, Littlefighter? Do you sell your homemade probiotics? What brands of probiotics would you recommend if someone doesn't have the time to make them?

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Re: Wheat Is A Cause of Many Diseases, I: Leaky Gut

Post  CausticSymmetry on Thu Oct 28, 2010 7:08 am

I should point that while many of these foods mentioned are bad for inflammatory bowel diseases, they can be tolerated by many others.

When in doubt avoiding grains if a good idea, although oatmeal is usually a safer grain and tends not to be harbor all that much mycotoxin.

Fermented oats, that's a good idea.

With respect to Hashimoto's, I have never heard of a single patient who had anything other than an iodine deficiency. Hashimoto's is usually brought about by multiple contributors, wheat intolerance is certainly common in these patients. Also, heavy metals, high stress, hypoadrenal state, and T3 conversion problems, etc.

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Re: Wheat Is A Cause of Many Diseases, I: Leaky Gut

Post  Yanks on Thu Oct 28, 2010 10:33 am

So should I e fermenting oats as part of my leaky gut and hair loss therapy? Also, how does onedo that? Just soak them over night?

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Re: Wheat Is A Cause of Many Diseases, I: Leaky Gut

Post  Balthier on Thu Oct 28, 2010 3:06 pm

yeah soaking overnight in just water helps you could add other things to it to help ferment it faster(yogurt,organic raw ACV,whey etc.)lot more recipes and interesting reading on this page /oats/index.htm[/url]http://www.schooloflife.org/oats/index.htm never knew it was somewhat standard long time ago to ferment oats before eating them might explain why celiac and gluten issues are on the rise we don't ferment foods as much anymore especially grains. Fermentation makes the minerals more available by breaking down phytic acid and gluten. Here's a quote from that site most cultures fermented their grains before eating even rice and corn which are gluten free

Our ancestors, and virtually all pre-industrialized peoples soaked or fermented their grains before making them into porridge, breads, cakes and casseroles. A quick review of grain recipes from around the world will prove our point. In India rice and lentils are fermented for at least two days before they are prepared as idli and dosas. In Africa the natives soak coarsely ground corn overnight before adding it to soups and stews, and they ferment corn or millet for several days to produce a porridge called ogi. A similar dish made from oats was traditional among the Welsh. In some Oriental and Latin American countries rice receives a long fermentation before it is prepared. Ethiopians make their distinctive injera bread by fermenting a grain called teff for several days. Mexican corn cakes, called pozol, are fermented for several days and for as long as two weeks in banana leaves. Before the introduction of commercial brewers yeast, Europeans made slow-rise breads from fermented starters; in America the pioneers were known for their sourdough breads, pancakes and biscuits, and throughout Europe grains were soaked overnight, and for a long as several days, in water or soured milk before they were cooked and serve as porridge or gruel. (Many of our senior citizens may remember that in earlier times the instructions on the oatmeal box called for an overnight soaking).
[quote="Yanks"]So should I e fermenting oats as part of my leaky gut and hair loss therapy? Also, how does onedo that? Just soak them over night?
/oats/index.htm[/url]http://www.schooloflife.org/oats/index.htm

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Re: Wheat Is A Cause of Many Diseases, I: Leaky Gut

Post  baller234 on Thu Oct 28, 2010 3:25 pm

DM5 wrote:Thanks Danny and LIttlefighter- and good to know. The funny thing is that I'm pretty sure I notice inflammation after eating brown rice as well. I use brown rice raps for sandwiches and was eating a brown rice cereal, but began to notice the same nflammation. What brands do you buy, Littlefighter? Do you sell your homemade probiotics? What brands of probiotics would you recommend if someone doesn't have the time to make them?

I was wondering about this too. Does brown rice have any gluten like proteins in it? Does it contribute to autoimmune disorders as well? I've been eating a fairly traditional Japanese diet with the exception of brown rice instead of white and I'm wondering if I shouldn't just switch to white.

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Re: Wheat Is A Cause of Many Diseases, I: Leaky Gut

Post  dannyroddy on Thu Oct 28, 2010 4:04 pm

CausticSymmetry wrote:With respect to Hashimoto's, I have never heard of a single patient who had anything other than an iodine deficiency. Hashimoto's is usually brought about by multiple contributors, wheat intolerance is certainly common in these patients. Also, heavy metals, high stress, hypoadrenal state, and T3 conversion problems, etc.

All of your patients had actual goiters?

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Re: Wheat Is A Cause of Many Diseases, I: Leaky Gut

Post  DM5 on Fri Oct 29, 2010 4:00 am

What about soaking oats in coconut, rice or almond or goat milk? Would this be just as good to ferment? I am not big on using tap water.

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Re: Wheat Is A Cause of Many Diseases, I: Leaky Gut

Post  Balthier on Fri Oct 29, 2010 9:52 am

use filtered water then,or yes any liquid should work since they do contain water, but it might add it's own nasty sour fermented taste IDK never tried any of those fermented. People commonly make coconut kefir though so that might be the best.

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Re: Wheat Is A Cause of Many Diseases, I: Leaky Gut

Post  CausticSymmetry on Fri Oct 29, 2010 11:00 am

baller234 wrote:
DM5 wrote:Thanks Danny and LIttlefighter- and good to know. The funny thing is that I'm pretty sure I notice inflammation after eating brown rice as well. I use brown rice raps for sandwiches and was eating a brown rice cereal, but began to notice the same nflammation. What brands do you buy, Littlefighter? Do you sell your homemade probiotics? What brands of probiotics would you recommend if someone doesn't have the time to make them?

I was wondering about this too. Does brown rice have any gluten like proteins in it? Does it contribute to autoimmune disorders as well? I've been eating a fairly traditional Japanese diet with the exception of brown rice instead of white and I'm wondering if I shouldn't just switch to white.

Even though brown rice breakdown to glucose much slower than white rice, it can provoke an insulin response for those who are sensitive. In the end, the body handles the plenty of glucose.


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Re: Wheat Is A Cause of Many Diseases, I: Leaky Gut

Post  CausticSymmetry on Fri Oct 29, 2010 11:02 am

dannyroddy wrote:
CausticSymmetry wrote:With respect to Hashimoto's, I have never heard of a single patient who had anything other than an iodine deficiency. Hashimoto's is usually brought about by multiple contributors, wheat intolerance is certainly common in these patients. Also, heavy metals, high stress, hypoadrenal state, and T3 conversion problems, etc.

All of your patients had actual goiters?

No, and Goiter is still quite uncommon, however it has been on the rise in the last three decades.

I believe the primary cause leaky gut is antibiotics.


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Re: Wheat Is A Cause of Many Diseases, I: Leaky Gut

Post  LittleFighter on Sun Oct 31, 2010 3:50 pm

This is the 2nd part of the article:

This week we’re examining why wheat is the most dangerous food, and focusing on its role in causing autoimmune diseases. In Tuesday’s post, we talked about how wheat induces a leaky gut; today, we’ll look at how wheat generates auto-antibodies that attack self tissue.
Known Wheat-Derived Auto-Antibodies

In the book we talk about the role of gluten in creating auto-antibodies that attack tissue transglutaminase (tTg), a human enzyme that is abundant in the thyroid and gut. This leads to Hashimoto’s thyroiditis and celiac disease.

However, wheat can generate auto-antibodies to other human molecules besides tTg. These include:

* Collagens I, III, V, and VI. tTG catalyzes the cross linking of gliadin peptides with interstitial collagen types I, III, and VI, leading to formation of antibodies against collagen. Celiac disease patients have been found to have circulating auto-antibodies to collagens I, III, V, and VI. [1]
* Synapsin I. Synapsins are a family of proteins regulating neurotransmitter release at synapses. By forming antibodies against wheat gliadin in animals, and then immunoprecipitating human proteins with these antibodies, investigators found that antibodies to wheat gliadin bind strongly to synapsin I. Anti-wheat antibodies from celiac disease patients bind to human synapsin I. [2]

Other known targets of wheat-generated auto-antibodies include gangliosides, actin, calreticulin and desmin. [3,4]
More Wheat-Derived Auto-Antibodies Still to be Found

Scientists may have only begun to identify the human proteins that wheat can generate antibodies against.

For instance, auto-antibodies taken from the blood of celiac disease patients bind to an unidentified 55 kiloDalton protein expressed on the nuclear membrane of intestinal cells, endothelial cells and fibroblasts. [5] That nuclear protein remains unidentified today.
Effects of Wheat-Derived Auto-Antibodies

These various wheat-derived auto-antibodies can trigger attacks against a wide range of tissues. Blood vessels are a frequent target. In our book we note that heart transplants are generally precipitated by wheat-derived autoimmune attacks on the heart. [6]

Nerves are another. Wheat-derived antibodies against neuronal tissue, probably targeting synapsin, can produce “neurologic complications such as neuropathy, ataxia, seizures, and neurobehavioral changes.” [2]

Neurologic deficits, including axonal neuropathy and cerebellar ataxia, are among the most common extraintestinal symptoms associated with celiac disease. In addition, elevated levels of anti-gliadin Ab have been associated with idiopathic neuropathy and ataxia, even in the apparent absence of the characteristic mucosal pathology. [2]

I’ve bolded that last part because it shows that you can have neurological damage from wheat even if your intestine is doing fine.

Neuronal synapsin has been reported to be reduced in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. [7] Both diseases have been tied to wheat consumption. It’s possible that wheat-derived autoimmune attacks on synapsin may be a causal factor in both diseases.

The ability of wheat to induce peculiar autoimmune reactions is perhaps best illustrated in schizophrenia. Schizophrenics frequently have antibodies to wheat, but not the ones that occur in celiac disease:

In contrast to celiac disease patients, an association between the anti-gliadin immune response and anti-TG2 antibody or HLA-DQ2 and -DQ8 markers was not found in individuals with schizophrenia. In addition, the majority of individuals with schizophrenia and anti-gliadin antibody did not exhibit antibody reactivity to deamidated gliadin peptides. Further characterization of the antibody specificity revealed preferential reactivity towards different gluten proteins in the schizophrenia and celiac disease groups. These findings indicate that the anti-gliadin immune response in schizophrenia has a different antigenic specificity from that in celiac disease and is independent of the action of transglutaminase enzyme and HLA-DQ2/DQ8. [8]

There are multiple mechanisms by which wheat consumption contributes to schizophrenia and other mental illnesses – we mentioned opioid peptides last week – and elimination of wheat should be a first step in treating schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and other mental illnesses.
Conclusion

Wheat is a toxic food which can trigger auto-antibodies against a variety of tissues, precipitating a diverse array of autoimmune conditions. Many of these autoimmune conditions have not yet been characterized.

Other grains and legumes can induce autoimmune damage in similar fashion. In a comment today, John Wilson noted that he had recurring mouth sores until he gave up peanuts, which cured the problem. Peanuts are a legume and, much like wheat, contain a variety of immunogenic toxins.

If you have an odd, unexplained medical condition, try Step Two of our book – removing toxic foods from the diet. Removing immunogenic toxins will cure many pathologies, and make it easier to diagnose whatever is left over.
References

[1] Dieterich W et al. Cross linking to tissue transglutaminase and collagen favours gliadin toxicity in coeliac disease. Gut. 2006 Apr;55(4):478-84. http://pmid.us/16188922.

[2] Alaedini A et al. Immune cross-reactivity in celiac disease: anti-gliadin antibodies bind to neuronal synapsin I. J Immunol. 2007 May 15;178(10):6590-5. http://pmid.us/17475890.

[3] Alaedini A, Green PH. Autoantibodies in celiac disease. Autoimmunity. 2008 Feb;41(1):19-26. http://pmid.us/18176861.

[4] Shaoul R, Lerner A. Associated autoantibodies in celiac disease. Autoimmun Rev. 2007 Sep;6(Cool:559-65. http://pmid.us/17854749.

[5] Natter S et al. IgA cross-reactivity between a nuclear autoantigen and wheat proteins suggests molecular mimicry as a possible pathomechanism in celiac disease. Eur J Immunol. 2001 Mar;31(3):918-28. http://pmid.us/11241297.

[6] Sategna-Guidetti C et al. Binding by serum IgA antibodies from patients with coeliac disease to monkey heart tissue. Scand J Gastroenterol. 2004 Jun;39(6):540-3. http://pmid.us/15223677.

[7] Vawter MP et al. Reduction of synapsin in the hippocampus of patients with bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Mol Psychiatry. 2002;7(6):571-8. http://pmid.us/12140780.

[8] Samaroo D et al. Novel immune response to gluten in individuals with schizophrenia. Schizophr Res. 2010 May;118(1-3):248-55. http://pmid.us/19748229.

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Very interesting! So definitely avoid wheat.

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Re: Wheat Is A Cause of Many Diseases, I: Leaky Gut

Post  LittleFighter on Sun Oct 31, 2010 5:56 pm

... so even in the absence of intestinal damage, wheat is harmful in various ways.

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Re: Wheat Is A Cause of Many Diseases, I: Leaky Gut

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